This paper aimed to explore the phenomena of globalization that change the society especially in term of culture. The changes that brought by globalization have give many opportunities as well as threats to the global society. One of the danger challenges due to globalization is described by Huntington in his theory of Clash of Civilization. In this paper we try to discuss this theory and observe the opportunity and threat brought by globalization. We took the case of Islamic culture in Indonesia as an example for birkenstock larisa womens sandals this phenomenon. However, before we discuss Huntington’s theory and the case of Islamic Culture in Indonesia, we discussed the definition of globalization followed by the cultural dimension of globalization and problems of cultural globalization to give a clearer picture about phenomena of globalization of culture. And before we summarized this paper, we discussed several actions to anticipate the risk of globalization to global society regarding cultural diversity.
As mentioned by Dicken in his famous book, Global Shift (2003), globalization is perhaps the ‘buzzword’ and the most important issue in our contemporary live. The wide use of word ‘globalization’ in our society has brought broad definitions that mostly quite high subjective and sometimes even confusing (Amoore, 2002). However, a typical definition is often taken from the International Monetary Fund, which defines birkenstock larisa globalization as “the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology” . Nevertheless, globalization is not solely about economic activities, it also refer to a multidimensional set of social processes that according to Steger, “create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connections between the local and the distant” (Steger, 2003). And regarding Steger’s notion, globalization can be used as a general term to show complex changes of economic, social, technological, cultural and political aspects with regard to the increasing of interconnectivity and interdependences among peoples and activities in disparate locations.
As a matter of fact, globalization has happened since the early civilization that ever recorded in human history (Frank and Gills, 1994). The spread of ideas and inventions; the multiplication and extension of long distance birkenstock clearance womens communication; and the exchange of cultures, technologies, commodities, and even diseases can be traced in the era of Egyptian Kingdoms, the Chinese Empire, the Roman Empire, Islamic Caliphates, and even long before that time.
Even though, it is obvious that the economy of the world, or to be precise, the markets for goods and capital across international borders are more vivacious after the end of World War II because the rapid raise of manufactured export commodities (Tedlow and Abdelal, 2004). We can see now that component for production are taken from everywhere, and money or capital flows from bourse to bourse. And after the earliest appearance of the term ‘globalization’ in 1960s, the notion of compressed or ‘shrinking’ world is indeed present in our time and forming the idea of ‘global village’ due to the development of technology (McLuhan 1960, Pahjola, 2001). Everyone now is being connected by colored birkenstock sandals communication networks. Internet and satellite media make us notice about what happened in other places just in time. Book, film, and music are recognized everywhere and give strong influence to other like never before. For instance, book by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, has influenced many people in India and also in any other places in the world to develop informal school for children; Ghost movie played by Demi Moore was inspiring many young women in Indonesia to have short hair cut a la Molly Jensen; and many little kids in Manila can sing My Heart will Go On by Celine Dion much better than their own traditional local songs.
As a multidimensional process, globalization has been analyzed and explained in different and even often contradictory ways. Scholars not only hold different views with regard to proper definitions of globalization, they also disagree on its scale, causation, impacts, and policy outcomes (some debates about globalization could be seen in Stiglitz, 2003; Weiss, 1998; and 2003). However, it is clear for everyone that globalization, as a condition, is a big challenge as well as opportunity that need to be anticipated and accommodated. Due to the rapid intensification of worldwide connection, globalization has increased the international trade which could lead to the higher economics growth. But at the same time, globalization also makes possible to spread the threat and depravity and also promote inequality. Cultural dimension of globalization in the obvious sense can bee seen from the convergence of people appearance in the surface. Almost everybody now are wearing Denim Jeans, Nike shoes, or eating at McDonalds, drinking coca cola, watching MTV, using Microsoft, etc. In the other word, the globalization tends to bring the notion that the world is getting smaller and unified. However, in the same time, some researchers argued that the differences between cultures are getting bigger instead of creating a junction (Bikel, 2005; Barber, 2002). This phenomenon can be seen from the reemerging of ultra nationalist or nationalist party in some countries like REP in Germany, FN in France, NA and PVV in Netherlands, or LDPR in Russia. Debates about whether globalization increases or reduces cultural diversity or homogenization, still become hot topics in discussion about cultural globalization.
The rapid progress and immense development of information and communication technology plays a tremendously important role in the cultural dimensions of globalization (Golding Harris, 1997). It can be seen from the wide use of new information communication technologies such as the satellite, internet, and mobile phones since these technologies are becoming cheaper and more widely available. The increasing of easiness and speed of global communication obviously has gave it influences towards social interconnection and further changing the way of life in global society.
Even though culture has many dimensions as well as it can be defined, there are four common elements that been used to understand and answer what culture is. They are values, norms, institutions, and artifacts. These four elements can be seen as layer of culture. Some experts are describing culture in different ways by proposing different dimensions and layers of culture (Hofstede Hofstede, 2005; Schneider Barsoux, 1997), but generally these four elements are always present as the key components of culture. Values as the first layer of culture are related with ideas about what things are important in peoples’ life . These ideas give guidance to the other aspects of the culture. Values depends on the credo system or basic assumption on how the society appraises their existence. The next layer, norms, can be defined as “a principle of right action binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulates proper and acceptable behavior” . Sanctions are seldom used to enforce norms to the people and these differ with the importance of the norm for the society. Law is a formal form of norms that applied in a society. Then, institutions refer to the structures and mechanisms of a society that used to govern the behavior regarding the relation and cooperation among peoples within society. Institution tends to appear to people in society as part of the natural, unchanging landscape of their lives. And the last outer layer is artifacts that refer to material aspects of culture as a product or manifestation of values and norms . Artifacts are not only expressed in the form of piece of relics, but also as languages, rituals, and symbols.
Some of these cultural dimensions are easy to detect especially the artifact. This explicit face of culture can be analyzed through observation. But the deeper the layer, the more difficult it can be identified and analyzed (Schneider Barsoux, 1997). A rigorous evaluation, survey, and interview could be required to discover what is lying down as basis for social institution. Even more, sometimes a thoughtful interference and interpretation are needed to disentangle basic assumptions that formed such a values and norms in society. This, however, is not an easy task to do.
Cultures have a tendency to adapt and, at the same time, oppose the changes, depend on their characteristics. According to O’Neil (2006) there are three kinds of sources that are responsible for change and resistance of culture: (1) forces at work within society, (2) contact between society, and (3) changes in natural environment.
At this point, globalization plays an important role in cultural change since at least two later sources are being fortified by globalization with its intensive worldwide interconnection. And the strong wind of globalization is not only encouraging the acceptance of new ideas that change the culture, but also persuading changeless stability of the culture. Furthermore, this two sided pull of globalization on culture has created problems in global society which will be discussed more deeply in next chapter. Therefore, even though globalists have put their effort to endorse and make known the idea that rapid flow of communication and global interconnectedness could possibly make capital, prosperity, and wealth, to spread worldwide, but in the other side, globalization also increasing inequality and giving a chance for the idea of confrontation, separatism, conflict, and hostility to stretch across boundary of nations.
In cultural dimension, globalization has brought some changes either in a positive or negative way. Based on freedom house, due to globalization, democracy has increased dramatically from almost no nation with universal suffrage in 1900 to 62.5% of all nations in 2000. Furthermore, between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52% to 81% of the world and women made up much of the gap. It can be seen from the increase of female literacy as a percentage of male literacy from 59% in 1970 to 80% in 2000. But, globalization also increases the number of human trafficking, drugs use, and juvenile delinquency especially with violence .
As mentioned in previous chapter, the discussions in cultural globalization are divided between those who stress the problems of cultural homogeneity brought on by globalization and those who stress the potential for cultural heterogeneity that this trend represents. Levitt, in his seminal work, The Globalization of Market, mentioned that by means of technological change, social, political and economic development, globalization of markets has driven the world toward a homogenized or convergence commonality in terms of consumer tastes and product preferences (Levitt, 1983). Some belief that the unification of the world, for some extent, is backed by United States which is promoting its values through media news and endorsing popular culture in order to “Americanize” the world. Terms such as the “Coca Colanization” of the world or “McWorld”, are often used to express this phenomenon.
In the other hand, the global environment also increases the complexity and opens up sophisticated variations in consumer needs individually as well as regionally and globally that makes demanding products are becoming differentiated rather than standardized (Stonehouse et al., 2004). Furthermore, based on Barber (1992), globalization could increase the anxiety in uncertainty avoiding culture and fertilizes the fundamentalist movement in order to uphold and defend their identity. At the end, the expansion of world unification will face the wall of sovereignty over particular culture. This collision named by Barber as Jihad vs. McWorld.
Critics on homogeneity also stressed by those who see that there is an increase in the ability of smaller cultures to bring their products to a wider market due to globalization (Berger Dore, 1996). Globalization means that local cultures provide more input to the main cultural discourse. Consequently, cultural globalization leads to greater diversity. Moreover, interaction across boundaries could lead to the mixing of cultures that at the end will promote pluralization and also contestation. The increase of local awareness in adapting global practices is what then known as glocalization (Robertson, 1992). And based on Friedman (2000), the consciousness of glocalization for some extent will ask for political recognition. This could widen the difference from one culture and another and sharpen the tension among them. At the end, this tension could bring to the clash situation.
One of the prophecy analyses of future clash due to the differentiation of culture is publicized by Huntington in his famous theory Clash of Civilization. This theory will be discussed in the next chapter. Huntington defined civilization as “the highest cultural grouping of people that share in common their language, history, religion, custom, or institution by the subjective on self identification” (Huntington, 1998). Huntington gave his prediction that the awareness upon the identity of civilization will increase and be much more important in the future, and the world will be significantly influenced and shaped by the interactions among the eight major civilizations that identified by him. These civilizations are including Western, Islamic, Slavic Orthodox, Sinic, Japanese, Hindu, Latin American, and also African civilization.
According to Huntington, there are six reasons why civilization will be in conflict. First, the differences among civilizations are basic and sometimes contradict to each other. The work of Hofstede Hofstede had shown how these cultures differ and contradict to each other (Hofstede Hofstede, 2005). Second, the interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing that for some extent will intensify local consciousness and awareness and widening the differences between civilizations and also commonalities within civilization. Third, the alienation of peoples from their identity is increasing due to the processes of social changes and economic modernization across the world. Fourth, western hegemony has thrust other cultures to compete. Fifth, cultural characteristics are often very solid and the differences with others are hard to compromised and resolved. And sixth, economic regionalism is growing that make other civilization becomes stronger and brave enough to take over the western domination.
Huntington made a prediction that the widespread of Western beliefs and domination will provoke other civilizations and affirm what he called as the west versus the rest. However, in Huntington’s view, the Sinic and Islamic civilization are the most exigent threat to the west civilization. According to Huntington, the rapid increase of China’s economic growth could lead to the political instability in the context of international relation with the West, particularly America, since it will make the attempt of establishing its hegemony in East Asia becomes harder. Huntington also predicted that the explosion of population in Islamic countries will create political insecurity within the countries and with their neighbors as well as the other non Islamic civilization countries regarding the latent attraction from of fundamentalist movements. Moreover, according to Huntington, clash between Islam and the West is not a contemporary issue since the fault line between Islamic and non Islamic civilizations can be traced from a long history of conflict between the two civilizations. We can see from the past that the occupation of Iberian Peninsula by the Moor, the conquest of crusaders by Salahuddin Al Ayyubi to take over Jerusalem, and also the domination of ottoman Turks on Constantinople have given a piteous gash on Western History (Kishlansky et al., 2005). While in the other hand, the Western imperialism and colonialism on the Islamic Nations with a strong pressure to adopt Western values since the late of XIX century also has created many Islamic fundamentalist movements against the West (Black, 2001). According to Huntington, the fault line between West civilization which is based on Christianity and Islam civilization is worsen by missionary movements in both sides that instill their members toward the believe that only their faith is the right one and represent the goals of human existence.
In his thesis, Huntington saw Islamic civilization and China have potential to build an alliance since both seem to have the West as their common enemy. Huntington made a provocative prophecy about it that the Sinic and Islamic military will be connected and they will form a collaboration to develop weapons to counteract the West military power (Huntington, 1993).
Many researches see Huntingdon’s ‘Clash of Civilizations’ as an inherently dangerous theory, with many referring to self fulfilling prophecy. If the west attempts to adapt its foreign policy in advance of conflict using Huntington’s prophecy, this action itself might worsen any existing fault lines (Russet et al., 2000; Harris, 2004).
Despite of its provocative provision, the theory of clash of civilizations created many criticisms from outrageously different paradigms. Some have argued that Huntington’s’ identification and differentiation on civilizations are not clear and ambiguous (Russet et al., 2000). For instance, in the Muslim world, there is rigorously divergence point of views along different ethnics such as Arabs, Persians, Kurds, Turks, Pakistanis, Malays, and Indonesians. Along with that, the disparities of Protestant and Catholic branches as well as Germanic and Romance culture in Western civilization are also being ignored by Huntington. Beside that, Huntington has also put Vietnam under the label of the Sinic civilization together with China different with Japan, though in 1979, there was a bloody border war between China and Vietnam, known as the Sino Vietnamese War or Third Indochina War, that have made Vietnam keeps their army in their border against China till now.
The hypothesis of civilizational divisions will be more ambiguous if we noted here that Christianity upon which Western civilization is based was not originally from the West (Ralph et al., 1997). And it is also has to be remembered that beside Confucianism, Sinic civilization also has its root from Buddhism (Shaughnessy, 2000) which was born in India. And India itself can not be understood solely as Hindu civilization since Buddhism which is very different with Hinduism also has major influences in building a civilization in India.
The other criticism came up since Huntington confused the issue of civilizational division by asserting that such practices as democracy, political power checks and balances, and the law sovereignty are all got their origin from Western civilization. Maybe it is true that democracy and political division of power were first being popularized by Western countries, but many of these principles have attempted and taken a root in many non Western countries (Sen, 1999) whereas many Western countries have not fully applied these principles into their societies till now (Halley, 1965; Sahin Dikmen, 2003). For instance, long before Dutch people invaded Nusantara or what now known as Indonesia, local communities in its regions already voted for their leaders and had public meeting to look upon the government which shows a democratic and political power balance system (Madjid, 1996). In the other hand, the idea of law and state sovereignty had only been emerged in Eu